首頁 / 雜誌 / 產業與管理論壇 / 201512 (17:4期) / 日本產業群聚政策之發展與轉變:特區制度的演化與比較
中文篇名

日本產業群聚政策之發展與轉變:特區制度的演化與比較 免費試閱

英文篇名

The Development Process of the Japan Industrial Cluster Policy: Focusing on the Transformation of Special Zone System

作者

陳正達

中文摘要

1990 年代泡沫經濟破滅後,日本面臨長期衰退,企業海外投資與轉移生產據點更引發產業競爭力衰退與空洞化疑慮。為此,日本產業群聚政策進行修正,目標轉為發展地區產業群聚,以強化競爭力、提振衰退地區經濟。過程中,特區制度成為政策的主要運用工具;從1995 年「阪神‧淡路大地震」到2011 年「東日本大地震」,特區制度靈活配合產業與群聚發展,提供稅制獎勵、金融優惠、行政改革與簡化手續等多樣性支援,並取得相當成果。
本研究發現,日本群聚政策的主導權逐漸下放地方,政府、地方與產業也都明確認識到特區為結合國家資源、反映產業需求之最佳政策工具;神戶特區制度與醫療產業群聚的發展就是最成功案例。特區制度一方面承接國家資源投入、財稅援助措施,同時神戶本身的企圖心與產官學協調機制有效運作等條件的配合,更進一步加速醫療產業群聚的發展。「東日本大地震」後設立之「復興產業群聚地區」為特區制度最新嘗試。東北各縣在引進特區之餘,也開始逐步調整策略、克服本身的政策課題。本研究認為,產官學協調機制與研發成果能否有效運作及落實,將會是掌握著群聚未來發展的關鍵。

英文摘要

The long period of recession and stagnation of Japanese economy give rise to the recent transformation of the industrial cluster policy. The transformation has shifted its policy target to improve the industrial competitiveness by accelerating the formation and development of regional industrial clusters and the establishment of the special zone system. From the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the Great East Japan Earthquake, special zone system has become the most important industrial cluster policy tool. Special zone system provides a variety of incentives such as tax breaks, funding for development projects, deregulation and simplified procedure in the industrial sectors.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the recent development and formation of the industrial cluster policy and the operational mechanism of special zone system in Japan. The major finding of analytical result is, the industrial cluster policy initiative is leading by local government and private-sector from central government. With regard to regional industrial clusters, special zone system will prioritize the development of strategic industries that will contribute to strengthening Japans industrial competitiveness, while leaving to local governments what can be done by them. Like Kobe medical industrial clusters, special zone endeavored in cooperation with industrial, academic and government organizations for accelerating development of centers for medical and pharmaceutical industry, establishment of core research centers of medical, pharmaceutical, clinical sectors in Port Island area. However, from the perspective of resources allocation, the new effort such as special zone for reconstruction is questionable.

關鍵詞

日本產業群聚政策神戶醫療產業群聚特區復興產業群聚地區Japan industrial cluster policyKobe medical industry development projectspecial zonespecial zone for reconstruction

刊名

產業與管理論壇

期數

201512 (17:4期)

起訖頁

028-055

出版單位

工業技術研究院產業科技國際策略發展所

DOI

10.3966/199582342015121704002  複製DOI   DOI查詢

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