Value Creation Models Adopted by SMEs for Global Value Chain Participation Using Industry 4.0 Technologies: Case Studies of Textile Industry in Taiwan
面對全球產業分工型態的變遷，以及工業4.0 新興科技對價值鏈解構之衝擊，如何促進中小型紡織業廠商參與全球價值鏈是必須面對的重要課題。本研究選取4 家參與政府專案計畫的中小型供應鏈體系中心廠進行多重個案研究，從工業4.0 技術驅動的角度，透過網實整合系統與物聯網兩項關鍵技術的導入，發掘中小型紡織業廠商參與全球價值鏈的四種創價模式，分別是「提高生產效率暨數位展示應用」、「提升國際市場接單能力」、「掌握海外通路需求與管理」、「優化國際買家互動體驗」。研究發現有助於廠商依據供應鏈體系型態及參與全球價值鏈之驅動要素，選擇適配的創價模式，並透過產業供應鏈加速垂直與水平數位化整合。此外，研究結論衍生的管理意涵包括：(1)加速導入工業4.0 技術，整合設計、製造與行銷的全球價值鏈活動；(2)中小企業應依據自身數位能耐，隨需導入工業4.0 解決方案以參與全球價值鏈；(3)翻轉傳統供應鏈思考方向，以參與全球價值鏈為驅力並創造價值。
The global division of labor trends and emerging Industry 4.0 technologies have worked to deconstruct traditional value chains; this poses challenges to small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs) in the textile industry. For these enterprises, a means of participating in global value chains (GVCs) and accessing the global market represents a valuable contribution. This study thus performed case studies of four textile manufacturers whose performance improved after participating in the Industry 4.0 projects for SMEs sponsored by the Taiwan government. We considered the activities of these SMEs from the perspective of critical technologies, namely cyberphysical systems and the Internet of things. We were able to generalize the following four value creation models based on vertical and horizontal digital links: (1) improvements in production efficiency, (2) better negotiation skills for larger and more orders from international suppliers, (3) a grasp of channel needs and management, and (4) customer experience and brand enhancement. These models can assist textile SMEs in choosing a suitable response to the driving forces behind global market access. They further offer a means of accelerating the integration of vertical and horizontal digitization via industry supply chains. The managerial implications of this study include the following: (1) SMEs should accelerate the introduction of Industry 4.0 technologies to integrate GVC activities in design, manufacturing, andmarketing; (2) SMEs should participate in GVCs on demand and based on their own digital cap- abilities; (3) SMEs should step away from conventional thinking regarding supply chains and use GVC participation as a driving force to achieve value creation.