Discipline and Modernity: Karl Marx's Viewpoints
「紀律」問題的重要性在於它從十七、十八世紀起成為一般的支配方式。然而在回溯「紀律」議題的思想系譜上，常聚焦於Weber、Foucault、Giddens等人的貢獻，卻忽略了馬克思(Karl Marx)才是最早著手釐清工廠出現之後，新型的管理機制和「紀律」之間的連結關係以及發生哪些重要問題。Marx從批評Adam Smith 未能適當地區分透過商品交換、供求競爭機制下社會內部的分工和標誌著資本主義的生產特徵、使工人變成資本指揮下的一個社會機構的部件的工廠內部的分工開始，因此區隔出工廠外部的三種機制(標準化貨幣、平均勞動時間和法律)，以及勞動過程由協作到工場手工業再到機器的資本主義工廠分工紀律化的三階段歷史演化，而工廠運作模式是以生產力、生產關係和意識形態(也可以技術、權力、規範)三個面向的組成來分析。由於工廠外部的三種機制都是以分解與組合以及無差異原則運作，同時工廠內部的紀律機制也發展成手、腦分離的垂直分工和工序分解的水平分工，因此在受到內外環境交互影響下，西方社會原先追求普遍永恆人性的世界觀，逐漸為功能化的人所取代，紀律的概念也從傳統的上下命令一致，轉為可計算性與可見性。
The issue of discipline is important because it has become a general way of domination from 17th-18th century. However, tracing the genealogy of discipline issue often focusing on Max Weber, Michael Foucault, Anthony Giddens, and others contributed but neglected Karl Marx, who first clarified the link between new management mechanism and discipline, and something important occurs after factory appears. Marx criticized that Adam Smith did not adequately distinguish between the division of labor in society (within the exchange of commodities and the competitive mechanism of supply and demand) and the division of labor in factory (which marks the characteristics of capitalist production and had workers become parts of social mechanism under the command of capitalism), he separated three mechanisms (standardized money, the average labor hours and law) from outside the factory, and the three stages of historical evolution of labor process from co-operation to manufacture to machinery, and the operation of the factory model can be analyzed as being assembled by the three components of productive forces, relations ofproduction, and ideology (it can also be technology, power, and norms). The three mechanisms outside the factory are based on analysis, assemblage, and the principle of no difference operation, meanwhile the factory's internal disciplinary mechanism developed into the brain-hand separated vertical division of labor and the process-decomposed horizontal division of labor. Therefore, under the influence of environment interaction between internal and external, the former worldview of chasing general and eternal humanity in Western society is gradually replaced by functional human beings, and the concept of discipline is also turned traditional top-down command consistency into calculability and visibility.