The Analysis of Economic Security of Taiwanese Middle-Aged and Elderly Women Caregivers
本研究主要探討影響台灣中老年女性經濟安全之因素，特別著重於家庭照顧工作對其經濟安全之影響。從劣勢累積理論的觀點而言，女性在生命週期早期的照顧工作可能影響其在生命週期晚期的經濟安全。本研究利用1999 年與2007 年的「中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查」進行實證分析，發現台灣中老年女性從事家庭照顧工作，其主要照顧對象為孫子女；再者，年齡、工作狀況及照顧工作是影響中老年女性經濟安全的主要因素。其中，家庭照顧工作顯著的影響其領取社會福利救濟金的可能性，亦即相較於非照顧者，有照顧孫子女之中老年女性領取社會福利救濟金之機會明顯減少。此一結果並未完全支持劣勢累積理論之觀點及西方社會的實證研究結果，後續研究在探討此一主題時，應清楚區分女性的照顧對象為何，並考慮華人社會與西方社會在社會文化上的差異，以及此一差異可能對女性照顧工作與經濟安全產生之影響為何。
This article aims at examining the factors affecting the economic security of middle-aged and elderly women in Taiwan, particularly focusing on the relationships between family carework and economic security. According to the perspective of cumulative disadvantage theory, the carework women carried out in earlier life may accumulate over time and thus penalizes economic security in later life. This study analyzes the data of survey made by the Taiwanese government separately in 1999 and 2007. The research results indicate that a great majority of the middle-aged and elderly women performing carework take care of grandchildren. Age, the situation of employment, and carework are the major factors having an effect on the economic security of those women. Performing family carework significantly influences their receiving of social assistance. That is, carrying out family carework significantly reduces their possibility of receiving of social assistance. The results do not really support the perspectives of cumulative disadvantage theory and the results of studies done in the western societies. A further study related to this issue should pay attention to the recipients of carework. Taking care of different family members may lead to diverse outcome of economic security. It is also necessary to examine how the social and cultural differences between Chinese and western societies may have an influence on the relationships between women’s carework and their economic security.