首頁 / 雜誌 / 客家公共事務學報 / 201007 (1期) / 客家族群的社會資本:實證調查結果的初步觀察
中文篇名

客家族群的社會資本:實證調查結果的初步觀察

英文篇名

The Study of Social Capital for Hakka Ethnics: An Exploratory Investigation

中文摘要

一般客家研究者對於客家族群的評價是:性格閉塞、態度消極的保守族群,乃是台灣社會中沒有聲音且自我隱形的族群;換言之,他們是一群欠缺社會資本的少數族群。本文將社會資本界定為社會網絡、社會參與、社會信任三個面向,探討下述問題:相對於其他族群而言,客家人是否比較欠缺緊密的社會網絡?是否比較疏於社會參與?是否欠缺政治安全感,因而對於統治階層的信任感普遍高於其他族群?本研究主要係來自2003至2005年,國立台北大學民意與選舉研究中心針對台灣地區、北高兩直轄市及桃竹苗地區所從事的三項社會資本調查。本研究發現:客家族群呈現的社會資本特徵是:一、相較於其他族群,其確實欠缺鑲嵌於資源豐富的現代社會網絡,唯宗親會或同鄉會所代表的傳統社會網絡成為重要的社會網絡型態,以致於形成內聚型的社會資本型態;二、相較於其他族群,客家人的確欠缺參與社會團體的奉獻熱誠,但對於投票活動則有高度的參與感;三、除政府官員操守指標,其他兩項指標:決策能力與經費運用合理性,都顯示客家人對於政府信任度明顯高於其他族群。從上述三項初步研究結果來看顯示客家族群的保守與隱形性格,相當符合一般客家研究者與文史工作者的看法,但仍有不少例外現象值得繼續探究。

英文摘要

The aim of this paper is to explore the social capital of Hakka ethnics through a series of empirical surveys conducted during 2003-2005. After making a comprehensive review of relevant literature by Putnam (1993), Norris (2001), Lin (2001), World Value Survey (2001), and International Conference on Social Capital Measurement (2002), the Social Capital Scaling Measurement for Hakka Ethnics (SCSMHE) is constructed for the exploratory investigation. The SCSMHE contains three dimensions of social capital, i.e., social network, trust, and participation. Each dimension is measured by a number of attitude scaling questionnaires. The sample of each survey is systematically selected from family telephone population in Taiwan area. The research found out that: comparing to other ethnics in Taiwan society, Hakka demonstrates a passive and conservative orientation to involve social groups and networks. "Ancestor and relative association" is the most frequently involved in the number of forms of social participation as mentioned in Taiwan society. Bonding, not bridging, social capital is the typical pattern in Hakka society. The empirical investigation also revealed that Hakka ethnics are not active in the social participation of politics. However, it does not include voting behavior. On the contrarily, comparing to other ethnics, Hakka people are very active to involve voter activities to exchange the safety of political status in confronting struggle in Taiwan party politics.

關鍵詞

客家社會資本社會信任社會網絡社會參與Hakkasocial capitalsocial trustsocial networkssocial participation

刊名

客家公共事務學報

期數

201007 (1期)

起訖頁

1-28

出版單位

國立中央大學客家學院

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