Ethnic Identity, Learning Motives and Multicultural Conception: Policy Effects of Hakka Language School in Kaohsiung City
Kaohsiung City is a modernized metropolitan inhabited mainly by Min Nan ethnic people. It is not one of the so-called “Major Developing Area of Hakka Culture,” but a city where Hakkanese is being minorized and invisualized along the course of history. However, the Hakka Language School Policy (HLSP) in Kaohsiung City has been implemented surprisingly well and come out with unanticipated policy outcomes: the participation percentage of non-Hakka schoolchildren exceeds that of Hakka schoolchildren in particular; the increasingly acceptance of multiculturalism among elementary school schoolchildren in general. How we explain this unexpected outcome of HLSP in Kaohsiung City, an urban area where Hakkanese social power is considered weak. More importantly, what were the motives of those participating schoolchildren? What were the substantial effects of HLSP on the Hakka and non-Hakka schoolchildren?