A Study on Localization of Hakka Re-migration: A Case on the Changs in Caotun, Nantou
In the Japanese Occupation Period, since the Hakka in Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli were increasing and there was a shortage of cultivated land, they left the original domiciles and moved to Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Nantou, Hualien, and Taitung. Some migrants were voluntary and some were under governmental incentives. The subjects of this study are the Chang family, and they are included among these migrants. More than 80 years ago (1920s), the Chang family moved from Tunghaiku of Jhubei to Tucheng area of Caotun, Nantou. As to uniqueness of the Chang family in Caotun, in comparison to other Hakka who have become Holo in Caotun, they are the only family having Hakka proficiency and Hakka customs. The reasons are as follows: the Chang family moved to Caotun as a whole family and have had a close family relationship; they kept themselves from being influenced by the Minnans because they have lived in a closed surroundings; the Changs have a strong sense of family cohesion since most of family members still have lived in the same place as their ancestors did and sweep forefathers’ tombs. According to the findings, localization of the Chang family in Tucheng of Caotun is demonstrated in sacrifices to gods and tomb sweeping of Tucheng, land ownership, mastering the Minnan language, intermarriage with the Minnan, and part of religious belief and customs influenced by the local Minnans.