Ethical Analysis of Crisis Management: Managerial Implications of Stakeholder Theory
企業面對生死存亡的重大危機時，相對於專注於企業如何存續的觀點（類似股東權益理論），本研究主張，平衡地回應各方利害關係人的需求（利害關係人理論），有益於提高企業重整的成功，並對如何平衡回應各方利害關係人的需求做出具體的討論。本研究回顧既有利害關係人理論的發展、突破與爭議，並以東隆重整成功的個案研究，提出企業危機管理的倫理分析架構。首先，企業有必要區別應盡責任的不同，包括對所有權人的信託義務，以及對其他利害關係人的非信託義務。其次，企業需在善盡義務的同時，應謹慎地避開隨之而來的可能陷阱，包括企業追求利潤極大化而不顧道德(business without ethics)，以及熱衷公共義務而缺乏經營效率 (ethics without business)。本研究認為，藉由照顧各方利害關係人權利的具體行動，不只是道德呼籲，也攸關企業的生死存亡，更是企業卓越之道。
Contrast to the perspective of focusing on how to survive for an enterprise in a critical crisis (the shareholder theory), a balancing response to the demands of all stakeholders involved was proposed in this research (the stakeholder theory) to enhance a successful corporate reorganization. A specific discussion of how to meet the requirements of stakeholders in a balance way was also made. The development, achievement and disputes over the existing stakeholder theory were reviewed and a case study of the successful corporate reorganization in Tong Lung was conducted to present an ethical analysis framework for business crisis management. First, it was necessary for a corporation to differentiate the indispensable responsibilities, including the fiduciary obligations to shareholders and non-fiduciary obligations to the other stakeholders. Secondly, the company should pay attention to avoid potential traps cautiously while fulfilling obligations mentioned above, which included pursuit of the maximum profit but eroding morality (business without ethics) and enthusiasm for general civil responsibilities at the cost of management efficiency (ethics without business). The concept and managerial practice of protecting all relevant stakeholders’ rights are not only an ethical appeal but also significant to the survival of a business, which was the exact way to excellence for enterprises. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and practice are discussed.