The Development between International Social Enterprises and Grassroots Civil Society in China
本研究除了調查國際社會企業組織如何與中國大陸草根NGO協力外，並聚焦在社會企業意涵與運作模式的建構，同時亦檢視具有代表性的國際社會企業組織在中國大陸運作之現況，例如：一、葛萊敏基金會（Grameen Foundation）與中國友成企業家扶貧基金會合作推動微型貸款工作；二、國際小母牛組織在大陸的本土化運作，協助貧困農戶透過小母牛項目脫貧或致富；三、國際Ashoka（推動社會企業家方案）與中國南都公益基金會合作，培育青年公益人才；四、英國殼牌基金會支持、由中國扶貧基金會成立的北京中扶利民經貿發展有限公司，透過社會企業讓手工藝品商業化；五、Venture in Development（VID）成立Shokay公司，以收購大陸青康藏高原的犛牛絨，加工與編織後銷售到國內外，幫助藏人提高三至四成的收入。研究發現：一、中介組織的重要性：國際NGO在中國大陸的扶植由於國情因素，皆透過政府、企業型基金會、地方等不同類型的中介組織，提供扶植方向的指引或配合參與，透過這種間接關係，除了讓服務項目在推展上相對的穩固，同時也有效的減少資源成本的浪費；二、以社會企業為手段來「助人自助」；三、從資源依賴進入協力夥伴的模式。
The objective of this research is to investigate how international social enterprises collaborate with grassroots NGO of China, and also focus on the analysis of the social enterprise concept and their operating model. In addition, we look into some representative cases in China, including: (a) Grammeen Foundation and China Social Entrepreneur Foundation, they collaborate in carrying out the microfinance loan; (b) Heifer International, their localized strategy in helping poor farmer get rid of poverty and became better off in the heifer option; (c) Ashoka and China Narada Foundation, they cooperate to cultivate talented youth as public welfare assets; (d) The Shell Foundation and China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation, they establish "Beijing Fair Field Co. Ltd.," they sell handicrafts by the means of social enterprise mechanism; (e) Venture in Development (VID), they established social enterprises, "Shokay," to source the yak fiber directly from Tibetan herders and selling them to all over the world in order to enable Tibetan to earn a long-term sustainable living by knitting the fiber into high-quality products. Amazingly, we found that they devote 30%-40% raise of income to local residents. The findings of this research are: (a) The mediate organization is the crucial element. Because of the sentiment, the international NGOs in China are cultivated by mediate organizations, such as government, the social enterprises and other types of local organizations. The mediate organizations provide them the operating direction or participation them. By this cast of relationship, it can not only make the service is relatively steady, but effectively reduce squander of resources and costs. (b) Residents can help others and themselves through social enterprise. (c) The mode transfers from the resource dependence to collaborate partner.