首頁 / 雜誌 / 民主與治理 / 201508 (2:2期) / 民主化的不確定性與地方派系的調適:臺灣地方派系研究的發展與展望
  • 出版單位:國立中正大學政治學系
中文篇名

民主化的不確定性與地方派系的調適:臺灣地方派系研究的發展與展望 免費試閱

英文篇名

Uncertainties of Democratization and Adaption of Local Faction: A Review of Taiwan’s Researches of Local Faction

作者

翁立紘

中文摘要

綜觀過去20 年地方派系的研究,往往非以派系政治做為主軸,而是鑲嵌於其他議題研究,諸如威權統治模式、社會網絡、組織動員、政治民主化、政黨運作與競爭等。雖然如此,過去的研究途徑上仍可簡略區分為「恩庇侍從」及「社會網絡」兩種型態。本文將針對此兩種型態的地方派系研究進行區分及回顧,並進一步討論發展已久的兩種理論途徑在經歷民主化與兩次政黨輪替後的臺灣是否仍然適用?
本文認為,過去「恩庇侍從主義」主張派系的形成係「由上而下」,並為了其利益極大化而存在,此種縱向關係已在多黨化的政黨政治競爭中,由於派系難以找到穩定代理人的情況下增添了諸多不確定性;「社會關係網絡」則認為派系的發展係「由下而上」,並是建構與維繫此一關係網絡而存在。此種觀點在地方派系的權力運作模式於民主化後逐漸呈現多元而開放的領導模式,增添了橫向關係的不確定性。因此,雙重不確定性的環境使得地方派系產生不斷異質化的驅力,更使得其在地方政治中所呈現的樣態更加不同。為了理解這些不同的樣態,在回顧過去10 年的地方派系研究後,當前首要之務乃是建立地方派系在民主化後,地方派系究竟如何去調適不確定性的存在,使其得以繼續活動、取得利益的理論架構。

英文摘要

Taiwan’s factional politics has rarely been a core topic for political research. The past literature regarding the development of Taiwan’s local factions almost always embedded in other research topics such as rule of authoritarian regime, social network, organization mobilization, political democratic transformation, operation and competition between parties, and etc. Based on the existing research, we may identify two theories to explain Taiwan’s factional politics—namely, the patron-client theory and the social network theory. This study is to classify and review the two theories. In short, the purpose of this study is twofold: first, it analyzes the differences between the two theories. Second, it examines the extent to which the two theories are still upheld in Taiwan after democratization and two times of party alternation.
The patron-client theory argues that the main goal for factions is to maximize economic profits and the formation of factions is based on a top-down process. This kind of longitudinal relationship has been added some uncertainties because factions cannot find a steady agent in the current multi-party system. On the other hand, the social network theory argues that the formation of factions is from the bottom to top, under which the network needs to be constructed and maintained by itself. It may lead to the multifactorial and open-minded leadership model after democratization, and may add uncertain factors to the lateral relationship. Therefore, the double uncertainties environment prompts local factions to be heterogeneous and differentiates the modes of local politics. To fully understand the performance and behavior patterns, this study conclude that the future research needs to construct a new theory that can explain how the local faction act after the democratic transition and figure out how local factions adapt to the uncertainties, keep operating, gain profits, and survive in the democratic institution.

關鍵詞

不確定性民主化地方派系社會網絡恩庇侍從uncertaintydemocratizationlocal factionsocial networkpatron-client

刊名

民主與治理

期數

201508 (2:2期)

起訖頁

067-082

出版單位

國立中正大學政治學系

DOI

10.3966/2311505X2015080202003  複製DOI   DOI查詢

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