首頁 / 雜誌 / 社會分析 / 202012 (18期) / 「生態溝通」之探索-以印尼的災害應對處置為例
  • 出版單位:東吳大學社會系;輔仁大學社會系;世新大學社會心理學系
中文篇名

「生態溝通」之探索-以印尼的災害應對處置為例

英文篇名

Exploring "Ecological Communication" through Indonesia's Response to Disasters

作者

Hermin Indah Wahyun

中文摘要

本文運用生態溝通的觀點(ecological communication perspective),來描述印尼作為一個經常遭受自然災害的國家,是如何應對和討論災害問題。從這個觀點看,災難的解決被認為與現代社會立基於的社會系統是分不了關係的。通過溝通可以檢測到共同體如何應對他們面臨的各種物理威脅。在印尼,本文描述了關於災害的不斷演變的溝通過程以及對災害應對的演變特徵。我們將發現,溝通上在多大程度上鼓勵決策者來制定戰略政策,及優先考慮備災工作。

為實現這一目標,本文將探討生態溝通的兩個向度:實質性和實行操作性。從實質上講,它將回顧社會學家尼克拉斯·盧曼發展起來的生態溝通的獨特性,強調溝通的社會學面向。而實行操作上,它將運用生態溝通的分析工具,描述在災害中發展出何種類型的溝通類型,這種溝通仍然都是關於災前的威脅、受災區災難時的情況發展資訊和災難後的災區訊息,包括印尼所有有關的災害案件為例子。目前所選定的災前案例:蘇拉威西中部莫羅瓦利的海嘯威脅;持續的災害案例:中爪哇塞馬朗的潮汐洪水和蘇門答臘省佩坎巴魯的霧霾;災後案例:2004年印度洋海嘯。實質性的探索發現,生態溝通提供了一個領悟性的概念(comprehensive concept)鼓勵批判性討論也提供另種理解災難的方案。盧曼的""自我檢視""原則描述了一個社會系統的自我參照和自我分化的過程,而這種社會系統獨特地是根據人們的溝通方式而成。在實行層面上,生態溝通應允許同時考慮減災和適應災害。

 

英文摘要

This article applies an ecological communication perspective to describe how Indonesia, as a country that often experiences natural disasters, responds and discusses disaster issues. Within this perspective, the solution to disaster is assumed to be integrally related to the social system of modern society based on communication. Through communication, it can be detected how the community responds to the various physical threats they face. In the context of Indonesia, this article describes the evolving communication process regarding disasters and the evolutionary characteristics of disaster response. It will be detected to what extent the communication developed has encouraged policymakers to make strategic policies that prioritize disaster preparedness.

To achieve this goal, this article will explore two dimensions of ecological communication: substantive and practical. Substantively, it will review the uniqueness of ecological communication developed by the sociologist Niklas Luhmann, which emphasizes the sociological dimension of communication. Practically, it will apply the analysis tools of ecological communication to describe what type of communication develops in the character of a disaster that is still a threat (pre-disaster), communication developed in a disaster-affected area, and communication in a disaster-affected area post-disaster cases. Indonesia has all the disaster cases in question. Selected pre-disaster cases: tsunami threat in Morowali, Central Sulawesi; ongoing disaster cases: tidal flooding in Semarang, Central Java, and haze in Pekanbaru, Sumatra; post-disaster case: Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004). Substantive exploration finds that ecological communication offers a comprehensive concept that encourages critical discussion and offers alternative understandings of disasters. Luhmann’s principle of ""autopoiesis"" describes the process of self-reference and self-differentiation of a social system that is unique depending on the way people communicate. On a practical level, Ecological communication should allow simultaneous consideration of disaster mitigation and disaster adaptation.

 

關鍵詞

生態溝通災前持續災難災後自災

刊名

社會分析

期數

202012 (18期)

起訖頁

059-080

出版單位

東吳大學社會系;輔仁大學社會系;世新大學社會心理學系

DOI

10.53106/221866892020120018002  複製DOI   DOI查詢

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