The Formation of Community Governance in Shanghai
In the process of building a globalising city, the concepts of community activation and the Third Way governance have become ever more pervasive within the age of globalisation. However research has been slow to explore the diverse ways in which the above concepts are shaped by place-based, social, institutional, and political processes and what impacts these have on the socio-spatial governance of cities, particularly when related to themes of governance and community. Indeed, much previous research has focused on illustrating Shanghai's economic and urban redevelopment, but is inadequate in explaining why Shanghai has been able to both pursue neoliberialist market and capitalist development, while also maintaining the Communist ruling position, sovereignty and political legitimacy socially and locally. I argue, in the reconstruction of Shanghai's local governance, ‘community' has become a safeguard of China's Communist state, re-providing social welfare, reviving traditional morality and loyalty of Communism, maintaining a stable society. It is built as a governmental mechanism for managing local crises and side-effects within the process of pursuing a world city status, rather than simply serving as a local strategy of neighbourhood renewal. Based upon the characteristics shown by my empirical findings I have deployed Foucaudian studies of community governmentality and the Third Way governance, to illustrate different kinds of governing technologies that the state employs to exert discipline and exercise its community agenda in the process of globalising Shanghai. My intention is to expand my discussion of the specific case studies to more general observations about Third Way governance and state's invisible control behind its policies of reviving community.