重估Max Weber的「理念型」：後設理論的啟示 免費試閱
A Reassessment of Max Weber’s Ideal Type: A Meta-Theoretical Revelation
Max Weber 的「理念型」作為研究社會的策略，基本上是將社會實在視為一種不斷推進的動態過程，而不是具定型性的靜態「體系」狀態。這意味著，任何的社會研究皆須審慎地選擇特定的歷史事件（或現象）作為探索的分離點，而事件（或現象）所蘊涵之具文化關聯性的意義則是最重要的選擇判準。因此，「理念型」作為研究策略，其情形有如在都會中的行走者，著重的是在行走當下此刻此地之局面的不斷移動和交相置換，進行的是類似獵犬的嗅聞功夫，而不是具由上而下全景敞視觀察性質的「整體體系」觀。更重要的是，假若我們接受模稜兩可與正負情愫交融的身心狀態乃是任何社會行動的心理特質的話，那麼，這正是「理念型」所蘊涵且期待處理的現象，因此，「理念型」體現的是一種「斷而未斷」的感知模式。
As a method to study social phenomena, Max Weber’s ideal type is primarily to deal with social reality as a dynamic process rather than a given systemic body in static. Similar to the situation of a walker in a city, a researcher with ideal type in hand has to be keen in snooping along the trace he deserves to do so, just like a hunting-dog does. So, it is different from the strategy of panopticism taken by a theorist of total system, a sociologist (and any social actor as well) with the ideal-type’s mind has to focus on selected historical event(s) with a crucial cultural relevance as a target in affinity to start with. It means that he is required to keep himself in a phasic state in which any single “move” in space will tell us the story of a “present” moment in time. What needs to emphasize in particular in such a situation is that a psychological state of ambiguity and ambivalence always occupies in a social actor’s mind while in action; that is to say, a nature of mutual inclusiveness and non-exhaustiveness of classification is constantly experienced by actor. Concomitantly Weber’s ideal type happens to be an analytical tool to tell us such a story.