On Second Thought: Cognitive Shift and Resource Conversion within Service Bricolage
How may we innovate with limited resources? The literature of adversary innovation suggests that making-do of scare resources, or using symbolic action to build legitimacy, could improvise creative resolutions. “Less is more” is the logic of the former, by recombining handy resources; and the latter assumes another logic of “creating something from nothing”, by leveraging the resources of others. However, the current research has explored the issue of resource scarcity and resource deficiency, but neither of them has touched the matter of “inferior resources”. If social actors only behold inferior resources, how they may develop solutions from various constraints. This is a theoretical bottleneck as well as a practical challenge. To attempt a breakthrough of this issue, our investigation commences with social actors’ cognitive shift, to understand how they interpret constraints and make creative use of resources. This research analyzes how Hoshino Group turnarounds Orase-keiryu Resort in Japan and explores how the team transforms their cognitive understanding of constraints, while converting seemingly unpromising resources, thereby recombining them to develop new services. Theoretically, this research extends the theory of bricolage and recapitulates two new concepts: the relativity of constraint and the duality of resource. This article explains how social actors translate constraints that induces cognitive shift so as to identify opportunities and reshapes cultural characteristics of resources, further developing creative services. Practically, the analysis also expands the practice of bricolage, and points out that, once social actors could shift to a “second thought”, by means of relativity cognition and resource conversion, they could develop a new understanding of constraints while turning resistance into assistance; and as social actors apprehend the cultural elasticity of resources, they could convert resources’ nature and transform their value. As such, enterprises need not to restrict themselves pessimistically and may discover opportunities out of frustration, while transforming inferior resources into charming services.