The Evolution from Righteous People to Citizenship: An Analysis of the Hakkas’ Environmental Practices
It was obviously that the Hakkas had a highly ethnic consciousness, they have been battled with courage to defend their homelands, Taiwan’s Hakka people were even honored by the emperors as the “righteous people”. However, the characteristic of the Hakkas has shown quite invisible and conservative in modern Taiwan society. In the time of development as primary goal, the governments or enterprises pursued economic growth and resulted in the homelands were degraded. Does the characteristic of the Hakkas dared enough to resist the destruction? Is the Hakkas really a group that lacks responsibility and remains silence on the status quo? In response to those skeptics, this paper examined the image of the Hakkas which has been changed on the public affairs in the concept of citizenship from the Qing Dynasty to modern Hakkas in Taiwan, and took the Meinong Hakka village’s anti-dam movement as an example to present the fact that the Hakkas from the role of the righteous people who stabled the sovereignty of the rulers into the environmental citizenship who defended their homelands and the value of environmental justice.